A study on innovation and entrepreneurship education of mechanical majors in independent colleges
At present, the state has implemented several policies to vigorously promote “mass entrepreneurship and innovation”, and many universities in China are also actively responding to it by carrying out education and teaching reforms, building innovation and entrepreneurship platforms, and promoting the cultivation of innovative talents.
From the statistics of employment rate of Chinese college students in 2017, traditional manufacturing industries such as machinery, chemical industry and textile industry are facing challenges, and the “red light” is lit on all major employment indicators of college students, and the employment rate of graduates in manufacturing industry has decreased significantly, and the employment satisfaction and salary level of graduates are also relatively low, both undergraduate and higher vocational are showing Both undergraduate and higher education institutions have similar trends.
However, there are still many problems in the innovation education of independent colleges, and with the increase of enrollment, the employment pressure also increases year by year, which makes independent colleges to accelerate the research of innovation and entrepreneurship education and cultivate applied talents with innovation ability.
1 Some problems of innovation and entrepreneurship education
Because of the late start of innovation and entrepreneurship education in independent colleges, there are many shortcomings in the process of developing innovation and entrepreneurship education. For example, only elective courses of innovation and entrepreneurship education are offered, the college only gives some lectures on innovation and entrepreneurship education, the credit assessment is not strict, and students do not pay attention to it; the teachers’ strength is also weak, most teachers usually have heavy teaching tasks, teachers’ own business ability is not high, they instill the concept of innovation and entrepreneurship to students less in classroom teaching, and seldom guide students to participate in innovation and entrepreneurship-related science and technology competitions.
In the teaching process, the proportion of theoretical teaching is too large and the practical class time is small, so that the knowledge students have learned cannot be consolidated and their hands-on ability cannot be improved; the practical platform built by the school for students is small, so students’ theoretical knowledge cannot be applied and their ability of innovation and entrepreneurship cannot be improved. Many factors restrict the development of innovation and entrepreneurship education. In order to improve the competitiveness, independent colleges need to come up with countermeasures to solve the shortage of innovation and entrepreneurship education, in addition to increasing financial investment.
2 Specific measures to strengthen innovation and entrepreneurship education
2.1 Integrating innovation and entrepreneurship education into talent training program
Independent colleges should actively carry out teaching reform exploration, integrate innovation and entrepreneurship education into talent cultivation, effectively enhance students’ innovation ability, promote the development strategy of mass entrepreneurship and innovation, and deliver application-oriented talents with innovation ability for national modernization construction. Independent colleges should strengthen cooperation between schools and enterprises, further clarify the goal of training applied talents, integrate innovation and entrepreneurship into talent training programs, add mandatory credits of innovation and entrepreneurship in general education, and increase elective credits of science and technology innovation and entrepreneurship practice.
On the one hand, the school should create an atmosphere of science and technology innovation through science and technology innovation classroom and science and technology innovation activities, on the other hand, it should also establish the calculation method about innovation and entrepreneurship credits and the reward system of science and technology innovation, so that students have to join the big team of innovation and also have to quietly finish the tasks of credits to be taken, so that students can form the awareness of innovation, and then through some innovation and entrepreneurship competitions, gradually cultivate innovative spirit and Through some innovation and entrepreneurship competitions, we can gradually cultivate college students with innovative spirit and innovation ability.
2.2 Strengthen the construction of teachers
Innovative entrepreneurship education puts forward higher requirements for college teachers. Innovative education is the education of the new era, which requires every educator to teach innovatively, and only something new and interesting can attract students’ attention and mobilize their interest in learning. Therefore, teachers, in the teaching process
First of all, they themselves should learn advanced professional knowledge, especially for mechanical teachers, they should focus on the trend of scientific and technological development, let students have a certain understanding of the application and development of this specialty in their daily teaching, improve students’ identification with the specialty, stimulate students’ enthusiasm for creation, and better integrate innovation and entrepreneurship education.
At present, the faculty of independent colleges mainly consists of full-time teachers and external teachers. The full-time teachers lack business ability, and the external teachers are only responsible for teaching a certain course and leave the school at the end of the class, without extra time to guide the students. Therefore, in order to carry out innovation and entrepreneurship education, independent colleges should optimize the faculty structure from the following three aspects.
First, to introduce experienced and high-level teachers.
Second, strengthen the training of existing teachers so that young teachers can grow up quickly.
Third, strengthen the management, and make the conditions of guiding professional competitions and leading teams to win awards as an important basis for personal year-end assessment, merit evaluation and title promotion. Multiple measures are taken to make efforts to improve teachers’ education and teaching level, and gradually form a team of teachers with strong business ability, high professional quality and capable of innovation.
2.3 Sound curriculum system
Independent colleges are training high-quality applied talents who meet the needs of local economic and social development. However, at present, independent colleges still follow the teaching mode of the parent school, the professional courses studied are basically unchanged, and a lot of time is spent on the study of professional theory, while the practical link is weak instead.
The poor quality of the students cultivated is inseparable from the low capital investment and weak faculty in independent colleges. It is necessary to strengthen the practical link and build the curriculum system of application ability cultivation, so that students can improve the application ability through course design and professional competition after learning professional courses. In the case of mechanical majors, courses such as mechanical drawing, engineering materials, mechanical principles, interchangeability and measurement technology, mechanical design, hydraulic and pneumatic transmission, microcomputer principles, mechanical manufacturing processes, etc., as well as 2D and 3D design software such as AutoCAD, SolidWorks, UG, etc., are mainly offered.
In the professional basic and professional courses of the curriculum design link, usually the teacher gives the topic, the selection of a single topic, the repetition rate is high, so that the design of the plagiarism rate is high, the students complete the quality is not high. This requires the teacher to break the practice, pay attention to the novelty of the design topics, moderate difficulty, but also let students choose their own topics of interest, the teacher to review the gatekeeper, so as to stimulate the initiative, but also to ensure the quality of design, but also the use of three-dimensional design software to complete the three-dimensional modeling and finite element analysis.
This will not only improve the quality of the course design, master the knowledge of the course, but also can wield the innovative design thinking of students. Encourage students to participate in various science and technology innovation competitions such as “Internet+” Student Innovation and Entrepreneurship Competition, Robotics Competition and National Student Innovation and Design Competition, arrange teachers to guide the completion of innovative works, achieve the purpose of “promoting learning through competition” through the competition, and gradually Through the competitions, we can achieve the purpose of “promoting learning through competitions” and gradually cultivate students’ innovation consciousness and innovation ability. If we learn 3D design and 3D printing technology at the same time, we can not only serve the teaching better, but also provide technical support for students to realize their dream of self-employment.
2.4 Build a platform for innovation and entrepreneurship education
The financial investment of independent colleges is relatively small, the cost of laboratory construction is relatively limited, and the experimental conditions can not yet meet the requirements of innovation and entrepreneurship. In this situation, independent colleges also need to plan the construction of laboratories rationally, build professional laboratories for teaching needs and some innovation laboratories, and equip experienced professional teachers to build a platform for innovation and entrepreneurship for college students.
In addition to learning theoretical knowledge, they should also increase practical teaching, such as creating innovation and entrepreneurship studios for college students or holding science and technology innovation competitions, so that college students can have a platform to show their innovation ability. The college also needs to actively connect with government departments or enterprises to give financial support to students’ entrepreneurial practice projects, so that more college students can get the opportunity to start their own business and relieve the pressure of employment.
In order to realize the cultivation of applied talents, independent colleges should take measures to strengthen innovation and entrepreneurship education in the cultivation stage, improve students’ innovation ability and lay a solid foundation for their future employment and entrepreneurship, taking into account the employment requirements of society and enterprises.